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Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • Economiser energy control for increased service steam production
    pdf, 3390 KB
    With the ever-tighter IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) phases, the allowable main engine power installation reduces. As a consequence, the available exhaust gas energy for service steam production decreases. An oil-fired boiler can be used to cover the lack of steam, but at the cost of an increase of the total fuel consumption. In response to this, MAN Energy Solutions has developed the economiser energy control (EEC) feature. The EEC feature minimises the overall fuel consumption by allowing more exhaust gas energy to be extracted from the ME. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the EEC feature available for MAN B&W low-speed two-stroke engines. In addition, an example showing how the EEC feature can reduce total fuel consumption is also provided.
  • Propulsion trends in tankers
    pdf, 4677 KB
    Not all economic regions of the globe have major sources of oil nearby. It creates a demand for transportation from major oil producing regions, for example the Middle East, Africa, and Brazil, to consumers in China, India, and Europe. The slower growth in global demand along with an overcapacity in the market has resulted in fluctuating tanker freight rates for some years. This highlights the importance of designing newbuildings that go into the market for maximum efficiency. The requirement for Phase 3 Energy Efficiency Design index (EEDI) compliance from 2025 backs this up.
  • Filtration handbook
    pdf, 1867 KB
    The exacting tolerances in today’s hydraulic systems require tight control of the system contamination. Experience has shown that impurities found in the system originate from the installation and from new oil. If not removed, particles will cause damage to valves, pumps and bearings and, eventually, lead to malfunction of the system and increased wear on the hydraulic components. To avoid the above and reduce flushing time to a minimum, the whole system must be absolutely clean before filling up with oil and starting up the engine. It is vital that hydraulic system installations are carried out in accordance with the best practices, as described in this paper. This will prevent difficulties during start-up of the equipment and reduce the risk of suffering damage to the system. By following the guidelines given in this paper, a quicker and more efficient flushing process is achieved.
  • Shaft generators for low speed main engines
    pdf, 3471 KB
    With the ever-tightening IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) phases, it has never been more important to improve the overall efficiency of the merchant fleet. The combination of a shaft generator and the MAN B&W two-stroke marine engine gives a powerful tool for complying with the EEDI. The shaft generator can minimise the overall operating costs of the vessel when shifting the hotel load from the auxiliary generators to the main engine (ME). The advantages are the superior fuel economy of the ME and the reduction of auxiliary generator running hours. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the shaft generator solutions available for MAN B&W low speed two-stroke engines. PTO guidelines with examples describing how to apply the guidelines for an MR tanker and an LPG carrier are also given.
  • The Methanol-fuelled MAN B&W LGIM Engine
    pdf, 2819 KB
    The MAN B&W LGIM two-stroke engine is the methanol-burning version of our dual-fuel solution for liquid injection of fuels, the ME-LGI engine. This paper describes the service experience from the two generations of ME-LGIM engines, which have accumulated almost 90,000 running hours in total.
  • MAN B&W two-stroke engine operating on ammonia
    pdf, 733 KB
    Ammonia as a marine fuel is put into perspective as this paper presents our current knowledge about ammonia as a potential long-term fuel for two-stroke marine engines. We address the challenges encountered by the maritime market, which are best described as a paradigm shift to ensure compliance with global decarbonisation goals. To develop an engine for a new fuel such as ammonia calls for partnerships, cooperation and an understanding of the market interests.
  • Efficiency Improvements
    pdf, 4414 KB
    In the design process of main engine auxiliary systems conducted by the shipyard, options that could improve efficiency and reduce daily fuel oil consumption and consequently CO2 emission are available. The options cover power efficiency improvements of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the main engine, but also efficiency improvements related directly to the main engine specific fuel oil consumption. This technical paper describes each of the different relevant main engine auxiliary systems and the options available for efficiency improvements. Different solutions are mentioned for each system, some of these can be combined and the savings potential added up, while others will exclude each other depending on the selected option.
  • MAN HyProp ECO
    pdf, 3139 KB
    The paper describes the MAN HyProp ECO concept and application examples with various operating modes. For vessels with flexible operation profiles and running hours with both high and low power demands, advantages are fuel savings and emission reductions due to reduced propeller and engine speeds. With MAN HyProp ECO it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption by 10-15 %, reduce CO2, NOx and SOx emissions, operate the propeller with the highest efficiency at its best hydrodynamic point, reduce the operating hours of auxiliary gensets, and avoid electrical losses in operation modes where a bypass of the variable speed drive (VSD) can be used.
  • LNGC-optimized designs of ME-GI engines and fuel gas supply systems
    pdf, 7933 KB
    The new ME-GI platform sets the new industrial standard for two-stroke propulsion engines in liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGC) and other aspects of commercial shipping. The advantages of combining the ME-GI engine with different optimized fuel gas supply configurations, as described in this paper, are highly efficient and cost-competitive propulsion solutions.
  • Batteries on board ocean-going vessels
    pdf, 7410 KB
    The International Maritime Organization has adopted a strategy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from global shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008. Current technology must be combined in new ways; new inventions and alternative fuels must be brought to the global scene to reach this goal. In the light of these needs, this paper will focus on one of the potential ways to reduce emissions, namely the application of batteries on large ocean-going vessels. The potential for battery-electric propulsion is evaluated, along with the benefits of integrating batteries into the electric grid on board.
  • MAN B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    pdf, 2012 KB
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as dual-fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
  • Basic principles of ship propulsion
    pdf, 6797 KB
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant, and explains how this task can be supported by applying the new engine selection spiral. This revised edition also includes a new section on the environmental regulations implemented over the past years. The effects of these regulations are reflected in three examples on the application of the engine selection spiral.
  • 0.50% S fuel operation - 2020
    pdf, 15941 KB
    This paper provides information and guidance on 0.50% S fuel operation and how to prepare for the change from operation on high-sulphur fuel to 0.50% S fuel. Attention is drawn to specific fuel properties that should be in focus and how 0.50% S fuels affect the equipment on board. Expectations for the new types of fuels are given, and information on biofuels, fuel testing, and fuels that are not fit for purpose is also included.
  • Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    pdf, 4031 KB
    The tightening requirements of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) mean that the demand for energy efficiency of merchant vessels is continuously increasing. With the EEDI leading to reductions of the power on board, concerns about a possible lack of propulsion power during encounters of adverse weather have been expressed. This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency. This increases the heavy running capability of the engine significantly and increases the minimum forward speed of the vessel in harsh weather, without requiring an increase of the engine power installed.
  • 11,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 944 KB
    The 11,000 teu container vessel has been a popular vessel type plying the Asia-Europe trade routes. This size of vessel has been an excellent choice that increases the flexibility in fleet deployment, with subsequent economic benefits. This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared. In conclusion, proposals are made on how to further increase the endurance and reduce the fuel consumption by applying the latest propulsion technologies, such as a combination of ME-GI and PTO, thus achieving the greatest possible energy efficiency.

Technical paper GenSets

  • MAN dual-fuel GenSets
    pdf, 2878 KB
    The MAN dual-fuel generating sets L23/30DF and L28/32DF are based on the proven classic GenSet designs L28/32H and L23/30H, recognised worldwide as ultra-reliable and robust GenSets with long TBOs. MAN dual-fuel GenSets also offer low operational and maintenance costs. It is ready for new buildings and retrofit solutions. The properties of the gas valve regulator, which is installed on the engine, allows a flexible engine room layout. The GVU can be installed at a distance of up to 100 metres from the engine. MAN Energy Solutions’ dedicated engine diagnostics system – CoCoS-EDS – offers owners and operators an integrated system for data analysis, troubleshooting, trend analysis, and online service. The online service makes the know-how of MAN experts available in real time.

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