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Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • MAN HyProp ECO
    pdf, 3139 KB
    The paper describes the MAN HyProp ECO concept and application examples with various operating modes. For vessels with flexible operation profiles and running hours with both high and low power demands, advantages are fuel savings and emission reductions due to reduced propeller and engine speeds. With MAN HyProp ECO it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption by 10-15 %, reduce CO2, NOx and SOx emissions, operate the propeller with the highest efficiency at its best hydrodynamic point, reduce the operating hours of auxiliary gensets, and avoid electrical losses in operation modes where a bypass of the variable speed drive (VSD) can be used.
  • Economiser energy control for increased service steam production
    pdf, 3390 KB
    With the ever-tighter IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) phases, the allowable main engine power installation reduces. As a consequence, the available exhaust gas energy for service steam production decreases. An oil-fired boiler can be used to cover the lack of steam, but at the cost of an increase of the total fuel consumption. In response to this, MAN Energy Solutions has developed the economiser energy control (EEC) feature. The EEC feature minimises the overall fuel consumption by allowing more exhaust gas energy to be extracted from the ME. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the EEC feature available for MAN B&W low-speed two-stroke engines. In addition, an example showing how the EEC feature can reduce total fuel consumption is also provided.
  • Propulsion trends in tankers
    pdf, 4677 KB
    Not all economic regions of the globe have major sources of oil nearby. It creates a demand for transportation from major oil producing regions, for example the Middle East, Africa, and Brazil, to consumers in China, India, and Europe. The slower growth in global demand along with an overcapacity in the market has resulted in fluctuating tanker freight rates for some years. This highlights the importance of designing newbuildings that go into the market for maximum efficiency. The requirement for Phase 3 Energy Efficiency Design index (EEDI) compliance from 2025 backs this up.
  • Shaft generators for low speed main engines
    pdf, 3471 KB
    With the ever-tightening IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) phases, it has never been more important to improve the overall efficiency of the merchant fleet. The combination of a shaft generator and the MAN B&W two-stroke marine engine gives a powerful tool for complying with the EEDI. The shaft generator can minimise the overall operating costs of the vessel when shifting the hotel load from the auxiliary generators to the main engine (ME). The advantages are the superior fuel economy of the ME and the reduction of auxiliary generator running hours. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the shaft generator solutions available for MAN B&W low speed two-stroke engines. PTO guidelines with examples describing how to apply the guidelines for an MR tanker and an LPG carrier are also given.
  • MAN B&W ME-LGIP dual-fuel engines
    pdf, 2012 KB
    The dual fuel capability of our two-stroke engines has been extended to include LPG as dual-fuel. The ME-LGIP engine was successfully tested on the research engine in Copenhagen in June 2018, and it has already been ordered for propulsion of LPGCs. The paper describes the technology of the engine, comprising injection, low-flashpoint fuel supply system, and gas valve train. The feasibility of the ME-LGIP engine for other ship types and as a retrofit on existing LPGCs is also touched on.
  • LNGC-optimized designs of ME-GI engines and fuel gas supply systems
    pdf, 7933 KB
    The new ME-GI platform sets the new industrial standard for two-stroke propulsion engines in liquefied natural gas carriers (LNGC) and other aspects of commercial shipping. The advantages of combining the ME-GI engine with different optimized fuel gas supply configurations, as described in this paper, are highly efficient and cost-competitive propulsion solutions.
  • Batteries on board ocean-going vessels
    pdf, 7410 KB
    The International Maritime Organization has adopted a strategy to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from global shipping by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008. Current technology must be combined in new ways; new inventions and alternative fuels must be brought to the global scene to reach this goal. In the light of these needs, this paper will focus on one of the potential ways to reduce emissions, namely the application of batteries on large ocean-going vessels. The potential for battery-electric propulsion is evaluated, along with the benefits of integrating batteries into the electric grid on board.
  • Adverse Weather Condition functionality and minimum propulsion power
    pdf, 4031 KB
    The tightening requirements of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) mean that the demand for energy efficiency of merchant vessels is continuously increasing. With the EEDI leading to reductions of the power on board, concerns about a possible lack of propulsion power during encounters of adverse weather have been expressed. This paper gives a detailed description of the challenge of propulsion in harsh weather, and introduces the Adverse Weather Conditions (AWC) functionality. The AWC functionality extends the load diagram of the engine as long as required in an emergency. This increases the heavy running capability of the engine significantly and increases the minimum forward speed of the vessel in harsh weather, without requiring an increase of the engine power installed.
  • Propulsion of 46,000-50,000 dwt MR tankers
    pdf, 2215 KB
    This paper provides guidance and examples on how to ensure compliance with EEDI phase 2 and 3 for MR tankers through three case studies. Application of the latest engine technology, such as EcoEGR in combination with a shaft generator, will reduce the EEDI significantly. Combined with an optimized aft ship with a Kappel propeller and a rudder bulb, this will ensure EEDI compliance for traditional fuels. In addition, the paper considers alternative fuels such as LPG and LNG, as such fuels reduce the EEDI significantly and allow for a higher service speed if desired.
  • Dynamic limiter function
    pdf, 3146 KB
    The dynamic limiter function (DLF) is a new engine control system functionality that has been developed to improve engine and ship acceleration. This paper describes some principles of ship acceleration and why MAN Energy Solutions has chosen to develop DLF and how DLF works.
  • Propulsion trends in container vessels
    pdf, 1268 KB
    Container vessels carry vast amounts of consumables and components around the globe in liner traffic operated by some of the most renowned ship owners. Container vessels are a well-known representative for the maritime industry, and the interest in these is as vast as the competition within the segment is fierce.
  • Propulsion of 14,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 1056 KB
    In anticipation of the completion of the new Panama Canal, the “New Panamax” type of container vessels has been a popular category since the early 2010s. New Panamax vessels offer easy access to the large market of North America as well as good flexibility, as the vessels offer adequate economy of scale to trade on many other routes. This paper considers the propulsion plants available for such vessels, and shows the significant savings that can be attained through the application of the latest propulsion technology, including EcoEGR.
  • 11,000 teu container vessel
    pdf, 944 KB
    The 11,000 teu container vessel has been a popular vessel type plying the Asia-Europe trade routes. This size of vessel has been an excellent choice that increases the flexibility in fleet deployment, with subsequent economic benefits. This paper considers an ME-GI Mk. 2 gas-fuelled container vessel and the potential different fuel gas supply system arrangements available. A method to calculate the gas tank size is proposed and different fuel gas system arrangements are compared. In conclusion, proposals are made on how to further increase the endurance and reduce the fuel consumption by applying the latest propulsion technologies, such as a combination of ME-GI and PTO, thus achieving the greatest possible energy efficiency.
  • Costs and benefits
    pdf, 2730 KB
    Key results from a DNV GL and MAN Energy Solutions joint study The Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) in place in North America and Northern Europe, in combination with the upcoming global 0.5% limit on sulphur in 2020 (or 2025) and similar EU limits in 2020, call for alternative fuels as a means for compliance. Several alternative fuels are available and, at the same time, new fuel oil products with very low sulfur content have been introduced.
  • Efficiency Improvements
    pdf, 4414 KB
    In the design process of main engine auxiliary systems conducted by the shipyard, options that could improve efficiency and reduce daily fuel oil consumption and consequently CO2 emission are available. The options cover power efficiency improvements of electric auxiliary equipment, for example pumps, fans, etc., serving the main engine, but also efficiency improvements related directly to the main engine specific fuel oil consumption. This technical paper describes each of the different relevant main engine auxiliary systems and the options available for efficiency improvements. Different solutions are mentioned for each system, some of these can be combined and the savings potential added up, while others will exclude each other depending on the selected option.

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