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Technical papers

This is a collection of technical papers published by MAN Energy Solutions, Copenhagen/Holeby, Denmark, covering both MAN B&W two-stroke and MAN four-stroke internal combustion engines.

Our technical papers provide information on new engine developments and trends, service experience, important aspects of engine management and maintenance, and emissions requirements compliance and development, etc. 

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  • Decarbonziation technologies in merchant shipping
    pdf, 1365 KB
    In the context of the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) revised greenhouse gas (GHG) strategy for international shipping, this paper explores the pathways to fast implementation and scaling of decarbonization technologies in merchant marine shipping. The paper assesses the impact of energy-efficiency technologies on merchant marine ships to gauge their potential for achieving compliance with the IMO’s GHG strategy. It also evaluates various propulsion technologies, including two-stroke engines, fuel cells, and batteries, for different ship types and highlights their yearly CO2 equivalent abatement potential and associated abatement cost.
  • Green policies, legislation, and optimisations for the green transition of shipping
    pdf, 6178 KB
    Global warming is a global challenge, and many industries presently experience the effect of the first steps towards global legislation on their operation. This paper describes the implications of international legislation from IMO and regional legislation in the EU. Furthermore, our experience with efficiency-improving technologies is presented, and vital considerations regarding the impact on the propulsion plant layout is explained.
  • Service experience
    pdf, 15037 KB
    MAN Energy Solutions has introduced MAN B&W dual-fuel engines (ME-GI/E and ME-LGIM/P) for liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol (MeOH), ethane (LEG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The range of application of these engines has expanded from main engines on LNG, methanol, and LPG carriers to cover the full range of vessel types.
  • MAN B&W two-stroke engine operating on ammonia
    pdf, 3368 KB
    Ammonia as a marine fuel is put into perspective as this paper presents our current knowledge about ammonia as a potential long-term fuel for two-stroke marine engines. We address the challenges encountered by the maritime market, which are best described as a paradigm shift to ensure compliance with global decarbonisation goals. To develop an engine for a new fuel such as ammonia calls for partnerships, cooperation and an understanding of the market interests.
  • Filtration handbook
    pdf, 10217 KB
    The exacting tolerances in today’s hydraulic systems require tight control of the system contamination. Experience has shown that impurities found in the system originate from the installation and from new oil. If not removed, particles will cause damage to valves, pumps and bearings and, eventually, lead to malfunction of the system and increased wear on the hydraulic components. To avoid the above and reduce flushing time to a minimum, the whole system must be absolutely clean before filling up with oil and starting up the engine. It is vital that hydraulic system installations are carried out in accordance with the best practices, as described in this paper. This will prevent difficulties during start-up of the equipment and reduce the risk of suffering damage to the system. By following the guidelines given in this paper, a quicker and more efficient flushing process is achieved.
  • The Methanol-fuelled MAN B&W LGIM Engine
    pdf, 9427 KB
    The MAN B&W LGIM two-stroke engine is the methanol-burning version of our dual-fuel solution for liquid injection of fuels, the ME-LGI engine. This paper describes the service experience from the two generations of ME-LGIM engines, which have accumulated almost 450,000 running hours in total.
  • Basic principles of ship propulsion
    pdf, 18407 KB
    This paper provides the reader with an understanding of how the hull and propeller affect the engine running conditions and vice versa. The paper offers insight into how to design the most efficient propulsion plant, and explains how this task can be supported by applying the new engine selection spiral. This revised edition also includes a new section on the environmental regulations implemented over the past years. The effects of these regulations are reflected in three examples on the application of the engine selection spiral.
  • Container feeder
    pdf, 5003 KB
    The current feeder fleet is ageing, and the initialisation of fleet renewal programmes are expected within the near future. Modern feeder vessels will have to compete in a fierce and competitive container market and comply with environmental legislation not present when the current fleet was designed 20 years ago. This paper will focus on presenting the most modern engine technology and fuel types available for feeder vessels. Technology and engines that will make future feeder vessels both highly competitive and environmentally friendly compared to the current fleet.
  • Potential for dual-fuel conversions of marine engines
    pdf, 414 KB
    Engine designer MAN Energy Solutions and classification society DNV jointly argue that the main challenges of decarbonisation for the existing f leet are fuel price and availability, capacity challenges at repair yards and risk of conversion-budget overshoot, and current IMO NOX regulation. Proposals for addressing these bottlenecks include promoting the uptake of low-and zero carbon fuels in a well-to-wake perspective, legal frameworks that allow planning and build-up of capacity, and developing new guidelines or amending IMO’s technical regulation.
  • ME-GA - The latest dual-fuel MAN B&W two-stroke engine
    pdf, 2418 KB
    MAN Energy Solutions has added the dual-fuel ME-GA engine to the existing two-stroke dual-fuel engine programme. The ME-GA engine design concept is the premixed Otto principle, and the efficient performance of the engine is the result of an in-house developed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) solution. The high-pressure EGR solution has been optimised for the ME-GA engine with performance-enhancing results, which include high performance efficiency, significantly reduced methane slip, and Tier III compliance when operating on conventional fuel oils. Moreover, the development of the ME-GA engine solution, which requires only a low-pressure fuel supply, has been performed with focus on reducing capex for the LNG carrier segment. This paper introduces the unique on-engine gas admission system, and discusses the new engine optimisation achieved with the proven EGR system. The first ME-GA engine available in our engine programme is a 70-bore engine aimed at the LNG carrier segment.
  • Shipping en route to Paris Agreement overshoot
    pdf, 2459 KB
    This paper shows that the shipping sector will have a massive carbon overshoot where annual actual emissions and expected future emissions greatly exceed what is required to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5°C by midcentury. The accumulated carbon overshoot is estimated at 25 gigatonnes CO2 equivalents in 2050. Retrofitting single-fuel engine technology to dual-fuel may reduce the carbon overshoot by 1.6 gigatonnes CO2 equivalents (6%) until 2050. International regulation of newbuildings and the existing fleet, with a net zero CO2 target year and ambitious intermediate targets, is required to limit the carbon overshoot, set a direction for well-to-wake decarbonization behavior, and avoid stranded assets. Further, carbon pricing is required to equalize the difference between the price of fossil energy and energy with a smaller or no carbon footprint. Engine technology is no hindrance to ambitious regulation and reduction of CO2 in the shipping sector.
  • Synchrophasing
    pdf, 3823 KB
    For the increasingly popular twin propulsion design, MAN Energy Solutions has introduced synchrophasing, which is a new and highly effective tool introduced to reduce vibrations of both vessel and engine structure. A comprehensive test period covering over 15 vessels shows a vibration reduction in the range of 50-70%.
  • Ice classed ships
    pdf, 7215 KB
    Navigation in the Arctic and in icy waters sets specific requirements for the capabilities of the hull and propulsion plant of the ship. The hull must be reinforced and the propulsion plant must deliver sufficient thrust to advance through these icy waters to transport and deliver goods safely. These requirements for both capabilities of the hull and the propulsion plant have been put into regulation. This paper focuses on the challenges and specific aspects to consider for a propulsion plant for an ice-classed ship, especially for the new and stricter EEDI phases.
  • Propulsion trends in bulk carriers
    pdf, 3901 KB
    Bulk carriers constitutes the single largest part of the world’s merchant fleet when counted in deadweight tonnage. As such, the propulsion of bulk carriers deserves special attention in an indus¬try increasingly focused on reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses. EEDI phase 2 and 3 requirements are approaching fast and requires innovative solutions to be implemented for the propulsion of this vital workhorse of the global economy. In this paper the possibilities for future EEDI compliance will be outlined and evaluated, ensuring benefits for the environment and for the owner.
  • Improved efficiency propulsion plants
    pdf, 5749 KB
    The matching of hull, engine, and propeller has been challenged since the introduction of the EEDI phases, which calls for a propulsion power reduction. This paper explains how improved efficiency and reduced emissions can be achieved with three-bladed propellers, so that propulsion plants may comply with upcoming EEDI phases. The results of an investigation of torsional vibrations and surface hull pressure pulses are presented to provide a better overview of the interaction between hull and propeller. Two case studies, which include propeller optimisation studies, and analyses of torsional vibration and hull surface pressure pulses, are discussed to illustrate

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